|Title||Fer1l6 Is Essential for the Development of Vertebrate Muscle Tissue in Zebrafish.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2018|
|Authors||Bonventre, JA, Holman, C, Manchanda, A, Codding, SJ, Chau, T, Huegel, J, Barton, C, Tanguay, R, Johnson, CP|
|Journal||Mol Biol Cell|
|Date Published||2018 Dec 05|
The precise spatial and temporal expression of genes is essential for proper organismal development. Despite their importance however, many developmental genes have yet to be identified. We have determined that Fer1L6, a member of the ferlin family of genes, is a novel factor in zebrafish development. We find that Fer1L6 is expressed broadly in the trunk and head of zebrafish larvae and is more restricted to gills and female gonads in adult zebrafish. Using both genetic mutant and morpholino knockdown models, we found that loss of Fer1L6 led to deformation of striated muscle tissues, delayed development of the heart, and high morbidity. Further, expression of genes associated with muscle cell proliferation and differentiation were affected. Fer1L6 was also detected in the C2C12 cell line, and unlike other ferlin homologues, we found Fer1L6 expression was independent of the myoblast-to-myotube transition. Lastly, analysis of cell and recombinant protein-based assays indicate that Fer1L6 colocalizes with syntaxin 4 and vinculin, and that the putative C2 domains interact with lipid membranes. We conclude that Fer1L6 has diverged from other vertebrate ferlins to play an essential role in zebrafish skeletal and cardiac muscle development. Movie S1 Movie S1 Representative video of z-slices of sarcomere myosin labeled 4 dpf heart from control sample. Movie S2 Movie S2 Representative video of z-slices of sarcomere myosin labeled 4 dpf heart from Fer1L6 morphant sample.
|Alternate Journal||Mol. Biol. Cell|