TitleSodium bisulfate and a sodium bisulfate/tannin mixture decreases pH when added to an in vitro incubated poultry cecal or fecal contents while reducing Salmonella Typhimurium marker strain survival and altering the microbiome.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsRubinelli, PM, Kim, SAe, Park, SHong, Roto, SM, Ricke, SC
JournalJ Environ Sci Health B
Date Published2017 Aug 03
KeywordsAnimal Feed, Animals, Cecum, Chickens, Feces, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Salmonella Infections, Animal, Salmonella typhimurium, Sulfates, Tannins

The objective of the present study was to investigate the ability of animal feed-grade sodium bisulfate (SBS) and a mixture of sodium bisulfate/tannin to inhibit the growth of Salmonella using an anerobic in vitro mixed cecal culture to mimic the conditions within the chicken cecum. An initial inoculum of Salmonella Typhimurium was introduced to an anerobic dilution solution containing 1/3000 diluted cecal bacteria and solids consisting of ground chicken feed and different percentages of solid SBS or SBS/tannin, and surviving organisms were enumerated. Two different experimental designs were employed. In the "unadapted" treatment, the S. Typhimurium was added at the beginning of the culture incubation along with cecal bacteria and chicken feed/SBS or chicken feed/SBS/tannin. In the "adapted" treatment, S. Typhimurium was added after a 24 hour pre-incubation of the cecal bacteria with the chicken feed/SBS or chicken feed/SBS/tannin. Adding SBS resulted in reduction of pH in the cultures which paralleled with the reduction of S. Typhimurium. The SBS alone was found to be inhibitory to S. Typhimurium in the adapted treatment at all concentrations tested (0.25, 0.5, and 0.75%), and the degree of inhibition was concentration-dependent. Salmonella Typhimurium was completely killed in the adapted culture with 0.5% SBS after 24 and 48 h. The SBS/tannin mixture was less inhibitory than SBS alone at the same concentrations in side-by-side comparisons. Testing at a 0.5% SBS concentration, chicken age had little or no effect on log reduction of S. Typhimurium relative to age-matched control cultures without SBS, but age did affect the absolute number of S. Typhimurium surviving, with the greatest decreases occurring at 2 and 4 weeks of age (approx. 10 S. Typhimurium surviving) compared to 6 weeks of age (approx. 10 Salmonella surviving). Microbiome analysis with an Illumina MiSeq platform was conducted to investigate bacterial compositional changes related to the addition of SBS. The relative abundance of Firmicutes (at the phylum level) was decreased, and genera Lactobacillus and Faecalibacterium were increased when SBS was added to the anaerobic mixed culture containing either fecal or cecal material. The antimicrobial action of feed-grade SBS may represent a potential pre-harvest control measure for Salmonella in poultry production.

Alternate JournalJ Environ Sci Health B
PubMed ID28489978