TitleVariation in broccoli cultivar phytochemical content under organic and conventional management systems: implications in breeding for nutrition.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsRenaud, ENC, van Bueren, ETLammert, Myers, JR, Paulo, MJoão, van Eeuwijk, FA, Zhu, N, Juvik, JA
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue7
Paginatione95683
Date Published2014
ISSN1932-6203
KeywordsBrassica, Breeding, Carotenoids, Genotype, Glucosinolates, Hybridization, Genetic, Indoles, Maine, Nutritive Value, Oregon, Organic Agriculture, Phytochemicals, Seasons, Species Specificity, Tocopherols
Abstract

Organic agriculture requires cultivars that can adapt to organic crop management systems without the use of synthetic pesticides as well as genotypes with improved nutritional value. The aim of this study encompassing 16 experiments was to compare 23 broccoli cultivars for the content of phytochemicals associated with health promotion grown under organic and conventional management in spring and fall plantings in two broccoli growing regions in the US (Oregon and Maine). The phytochemicals quantified included: glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucobrassicin, neoglucobrassin), tocopherols (δ-, γ-, α-tocopherol) and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, β-carotene). For glucoraphanin (17.5%) and lutein (13%), genotype was the major source of total variation; for glucobrassicin, region (36%) and the interaction of location and season (27.5%); and for neoglucobrassicin, both genotype (36.8%) and its interactions (34.4%) with season were important. For δ- and γ-tocopherols, season played the largest role in the total variation followed by location and genotype; for total carotenoids, genotype (8.41-13.03%) was the largest source of variation and its interactions with location and season. Overall, phytochemicals were not significantly influenced by management system. We observed that the cultivars with the highest concentrations of glucoraphanin had the lowest for glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin. The genotypes with high concentrations of glucobrassicin and neoglucobrassicin were the same cultivars and were early maturing F1 hybrids. Cultivars highest in tocopherols and carotenoids were open pollinated or early maturing F1 hybrids. We identified distinct locations and seasons where phytochemical performance was higher for each compound. Correlations among horticulture traits and phytochemicals demonstrated that glucoraphanin was negatively correlated with the carotenoids and the carotenoids were correlated with one another. Little or no association between phytochemical concentration and date of cultivar release was observed, suggesting that modern breeding has not negatively influenced the level of tested compounds. We found no significant differences among cultivars from different seed companies.

DOI10.1371/journal.pone.0095683
Alternate JournalPLoS ONE
PubMed ID25028959
PubMed Central IDPMC4100739